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Your siblings have more pull than any other family members when it comes to your weight. Gender also comes into play. For same-sex siblings, a younger boy with an obese older brother is A younger boy with an obese older sister was 6. Meanwhile, a girl with an obese older brother was not significantly more likely to be obese.

Case of sibling incest resulting in pregnancy - ScienceDirect

Learn more about how your birth order affects your health. One Princeton University study found that daughters tend to bear the brunt of caregiving duties for elderly parents, and that sons may pass on these responsibilities to their sisters. The research suggests that because women are often raised to be caregivers, an older woman might feel less comfortable with her son taking care of her than her daughter.

While the occasional sibling scuffle is inevitable, constant teasing can create lasting hurt. They were also nearly twice as likely to report anxiety. If you yourself are a parent of more than one child, use these tricks to stop sibling rivalry before it starts. One Swedish study found that people who have two or more siblings who have suffered from blood clots in deep veins, a disease know as venous thromboembolism VTE , have a relative risk 50 times higher for developing such clots themselves.

Risk for VTE is higher in men than in women, and other risk factors include surgery, heart failure, smoking, obesity, cancer, long periods of inactivity, sitting or lying in bed, fractures in the legs or hip, and taking birth control pills. If you have a family history of VTE, let your doctor know before any surgery. That will allow him or her to take preventative measures to prevent the risk of clotting. These healthy habits can help prevent deadly blood clots. If all this sibling talk has got you nervous, take comfort in knowing that recent studies have found that children without siblings are no less capable of connecting with their peers than those raised with siblings.

Skip links Skip to content Skip to footer. Evidence for contextual mechanisms for human kin recognition has focused on the effects of having opposite-sex siblings 7 , coresidence duration 8 , and maternal—perinatal association 9. Having an opposite-sex sibling is associated with increased opposition to incest in third parties, an indirect measure of incest avoidance 7. Coresidence duration with opposite-sex siblings predicts the strength of opposition to incest in third parties 9 , 10 , even among genetically unrelated individuals [e.

Additionally, maternal—perinatal association overrides coresidence cues; experiencing the association between one's mother and a younger sibling is positively related to sibling altruism and incest aversion, even when controlling for the effects of coresidence duration 9. Such cues of kinship are thought to influence kin-relevant cognition toward specific individuals, but their role in more broadly shaping responses to cues of kinship has not been investigated.

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Evidence for phenotypic mechanisms for human kin recognition has focused on the effects of odor reviewed in ref. Research on human body odor shows that siblings can be recognized even after prolonged separation 13 and that mutual aversion exists between opposite-sex family members Experimental studies show that facial self-resemblance increases both trusting behavior 17 , 18 and prosocial perceptions 19 while decreasing preference in a sexual context ref.

A recent study demonstrated that prosocial attributions to self-resembling faces are greater than prosocial attributions to co-twin—resembling faces among monozygotic and dizygotic twins 21 , suggesting that human phenotypic kin-recognition mechanisms might be self-referential rather than family-referential at least for facial similarity. Previous research has shown that contextual kinship cues e. In light of these findings, Lieberman et al. This kinship index then feeds into separate mechanisms for regulating prosocial and sexual behavior.

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In this model, cues of kinship influence behavior indirectly through their effect on the kinship index. By contrast with Lieberman et al. A direct influence of contextual cues would be supported if experience with siblings influences attitudes to cues of kinship in unfamiliar individuals i. The relative costs of overinclusive versus underinclusive kin recognition may be different in prosocial and sexual domains Additionally, developmental experience with kin may bias the perceived base rate of kin, which will in turn affect the optimal bias for detecting relatedness Consequently, we propose that the mechanisms that regulate behaviors in sexual and prosocial domains may respond differently to factors affecting kin recognition.

For example, cues of kinship may promote positive regard for individuals displaying these cues, irrespective of the perceived base rate of kin in the environment, while also triggering incest-avoidance behaviors among those who are most at risk for incestuous mating i.

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This functionalist prediction would be supported by a dissociation between the effects of experience with siblings on prosocial and sexual attitudes to cues of kinship in unfamiliar individuals, whereby experience with siblings increases aversion to cues of kinship in a sexual context, while having little effect on prosocial attitudes. To address these issues, we test in the current study whether having opposite-sex siblings is related to prosocial and sexual attitudes toward a phenotypic cue of kinship in unfamiliar faces: computer-generated facial resemblance.

We used sophisticated, established methods to generate male and female self-resembling faces following the procedure reviewed in ref. In line with previous findings 19 , 24 , we predicted that self-resemblance biases would be positive for prosocial judgments and smaller or negative for inbreeding-relevant judgments.

However, we also predicted that inbreeding-relevant judgments would be modulated by whether or not participants had opposite-sex siblings.

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If having opposite-sex siblings directly influences inbreeding-avoidance mechanisms, rather than only influencing estimates of kinship to specific individuals, women with brothers should show more aversion to self-resemblance in an inbreeding-relevant context than women without brothers. Because coresidence duration with a same-sex sibling does not influence moral opposition to third-party incest 9 , 10 , we also predicted no relationship between whether or not participants had same-sex siblings and self-resemblance biases in an inbreeding-relevant context. We tested two secondary hypotheses in addition to the one above.

First, because previous research demonstrated an additive effect of the number of opposite-sex siblings on the strength of incest avoidance 7 , we tested whether women with more brothers show stronger aversions to self-resemblance in an inbreeding-relevant context. Second, because research on maternal—perinatal association suggests that younger siblings exhibit stronger kinship cues than older siblings 9 , we tested whether having younger brothers is more strongly associated with inbreeding-relevant self-resemblance biases than having older brothers is.

Evidence supporting these hypotheses would present further proof that contextual cues of kinship can directly influence the mechanisms that regulate sexual behavior to cues of kinship. Moreover, if these effects were specific to judgments of men's attractiveness i. Self-resemblance biases were calculated as the extent to which participants judged self-resembling male or female faces Fig. We used one-sample t tests to compare self-resemblance biases for our female participants to the chance value of 0. The construction of self-resembling faces. Because only 8 of our participants had neither brothers nor sisters i.

The relationship between having brothers and self-resemblance biases for male faces was analyzed by using a mixed-design ANOVA with a within-subjects factor of judgment attractiveness, trustworthiness and between-subjects factor of brothers present, absent. The same patterns of results were found when we controlled for the number of brothers versus sisters.

Associated Data

A Having brothers interacted with self-resemblance bias for the mate-choice—relevant perception of male attractiveness but not the prosocial perception of male trustworthiness. B Having sisters did not interact with either female attractiveness or female trustworthiness. Error bars represent SEM.

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The relationship between having sisters and self-resemblance biases for female faces was analyzed in the same way as our initial analysis. To test for an additive effect of the number of brothers, we analyzed the relationship between self-resemblance biases and number of brothers by using regression following the procedure in ref. Women with more brothers exhibited stronger aversions to self-resemblance in an inbreeding-relevant context. The relationship between number of brothers and self-resemblance bias for male attractiveness judgments.

Dots represent one participant, and each line added to a dot represents an additional participant.

Younger siblings exhibit the kinship cue of maternal—perinatal association 8 , whereas older siblings do not. To test for possible effects of maternal—perinatal association, the relationships between self-resemblance biases for male faces and having younger versus older brothers were analyzed in the same manner as above. Two participants who had same-age i. Of the remaining participants, 47 had no brothers, 56 had only older brothers, 44 had only younger brothers, and only 7 had both younger and older brothers. Therefore, we coded each participant as having younger brothers yes, no and having older brothers yes, no and replaced brothers in the original analysis with each of these between-subjects factors.

Consistent with previous research 19 , 24 and predictions from inclusive fitness theory 1 and inbreeding-avoidance theory 2 , the prosocial perceptions of same-sex attractiveness, same-sex trustworthiness, and opposite-sex trustworthiness showed a significant positive self-resemblance bias, whereas the inbreeding-relevant perception of opposite-sex attractiveness did not. Supporting our hypothesis that contextual cues of kinship can directly affect how mechanisms that regulate social behavior respond to cues of kinship, inbreeding-relevant perceptions of unfamiliar faces were affected by having opposite-sex siblings: Women with brothers showed a smaller self-resemblance bias for male attractiveness than women without brothers did, and the strength of aversion to self-resemblance in male faces increased as the number of brothers increased.

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However, prosocial perceptions were unaffected by having same- or opposite-sex siblings, providing important evidence for a functional dissociation between the mechanisms regulating prosocial and sexual behavior and how they respond to cues of kinship. Collectively, these findings show that contextual cues of kinship can directly influence the mechanisms that regulate responses to other kinship cues and that the effects of contextual cues on sexual and prosocial responses to kinship cues can be dissociated. Our findings complement prior work regarding the effects of the contextual kinship cues of cosocialization 7 , coresidence duration 9 , 10 , and maternal—perinatal association 9 on attitudes toward familiar siblings.

Here, we show that having opposite-sex siblings is related to attitudes toward unfamiliar individuals displaying cues of kinship in a way that is similar to effects reported for cosocialization 7 and coresidence duration 9 , Where coresidence duration with opposite-sex, but not same-sex, siblings predicts moral opposition to incest 9 , 10 , here we show that having opposite-sex, but not same-sex, siblings predicts inbreeding-relevant perceptions of facial self-resemblance in unfamiliar individuals.

Our finding that having younger brothers predicts inbreeding-relevant perceptions better than having older brothers does is also consistent with previous evidence that maternal—perinatal association, a cue only available from younger siblings, is a more reliable kinship cue than coresidence duration is 9. We observed a significant linear effect of the number of brothers on judgments of male attractiveness Fig. For example, although women without brothers tended to show a positive self-resemblance bias, women with more than one brother tended to show a negative self-resemblance bias.

This linear effect complements prior work showing additive effects of the number of opposite-sex siblings on third-party incest aversion 7. Additionally, this finding potentially reconciles important discrepancies in the literature on attraction and self-resemblance biases 19 , 20 , Although some studies have observed preferences for self-resemblance in opposite-sex faces 20 , 24 , albeit weaker preferences than for same-sex faces 24 , other studies have observed aversions The linear effect of number of opposite-sex siblings on preferences for self-resemblance in opposite-sex faces observed in the current study highlights the finding that the number of opposite-sex siblings an individual has can be critical for determining their absolute level of self-resemblance bias for judgments of opposite-sex attractiveness.

Additionally, as suggested in a recent response 25 to the claim that individuals are sexually attracted to close kin 20 , some degree of preference for cues of kinship in individuals who do not exhibit strong i. The mechanisms through which siblings shape attitudes and behavior to individuals displaying cues of kinship are unclear.

The interaction between judgment type and having opposite-sex siblings rules out explanations based on the finding that firstborns are relatively poor at detecting facial resemblance between two unfamiliar individuals 27 because such explanations would predict equivalent effects for attractiveness and trustworthiness judgments. The pattern of results in the current study also rules out explanations relying on simple effects of visual experience with the faces of relatives.

Visual experience with faces increases attributions of attractiveness and trustworthiness to novel, physically similar faces to the same extent 28 , and visual adaptation to faces of one sex has a relatively specific effect on perceptions of faces of that sex 29 , Thus, accounts emphasizing the effects of visual adaptation or mere exposure would predict that having siblings would increase perceptions of both attractiveness and trustworthiness of self-resembling faces of the same sex as the siblings.

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  5. Here, we found that having opposite-sex siblings decreased perceptions of attractiveness of self-resembling faces but did not affect perceptions of trustworthiness. This effect was specific to having opposite-sex siblings because having same-sex siblings had no effects on self-resemblance biases for either sex of face.

    Greater experience with kin could lead to overinclusive kin recognition through an increase in the perceived base rate of kin in the environment In other words, Bayesian models of kin recognition 31 would predict that, in environments containing more kin, weaker kinship cues are needed to classify others as close kin. Additionally, the costs and benefits of overinclusive and underinclusive kin recognition may depend on the functional context of the kinship judgment 22 : Underinclusive kin recognition may have greater costs in a sexual context, potentially leading to an incestuous conception, than in a prosocial context.

    Our findings provide strong evidence for these proposals, demonstrating that experience with siblings does indeed have dissociable effects on sexual and prosocial attitudes to cues of kinship. Moreover, the fact that these dissociable effects are specific to experience with opposite-sex siblings and show an additive effect of sibling number supports our proposed functionalist explanation for the dissociation: Cues of kinship do indeed appear to promote positive regard for individuals displaying these cues, irrespective of cues to the base rate of kin in the environment, whereas incest-avoidance behaviors are influenced by the risk of incestuous mating i.

    Although some models of kin recognition predict that cues to a higher base rate of kin will lead to general overinclusive kin recognition 22 , here we find no evidence for this type of general effect. The mechanism for our findings may involve a more context-dependent effect of visual experience. Insofar as siblings resemble self 32 , cues of self-resemblance may trigger mechanisms designed to respond to cues of sibling resemblance. Thus, self-resemblance biases could be shaped by learned associations between sibling characteristics and emotional responses to those siblings.

    The domain specificity of these effects could be explained by a dissociation between the general mechanisms that underpin sexual attraction and trust, such as is implied by previous work on the neurobiology of face perception 33 , These possible roles of self- and sibling resemblance could be explored by comparing attitudes to self- and sibling resemblance in individuals with biological versus nonbiological siblings.

    Additionally, whereas previous research demonstrated that self-resemblance biases for judgments of male attractiveness were positively linked to the valence of experience with women's fathers 35 , here we show that self-resemblance biases for judgments of male attractiveness are negatively linked to having male siblings. This difference may reflect a further distinction between the adaptive processes of parental imprinting and inbreeding avoidance.

    In sum, our findings address two of the areas for future research that were suggested in a recent review of kin-recognition research 3 : elucidating a source of systematic, intraspecific variation in kin recognition and showing how this variation is specific to one of the two contexts in which biological theories predict kin recognition is most relevant. We provide evidence for systematic variability in responses to a cue of kinship: Women perceive the attractiveness of self-resembling men differently depending on whether their developmental environment included brothers.

    Self-resembling face stimuli Fig. Other-resembling faces were made by using the same methods for 10 female individual faces that were unknown to the participants. This method for experimentally increasing facial self-resemblance has been extensively used 19 , 24 , 35 — See DeBruine et al. Importantly, because this method of transforming cues of kinship defines self-resemblance by using the difference in shape between self and a same-sex prototype, rather than by blending self and opposite-sex faces sensu ref.

    Self-resemblance bias was tested by following the exact procedure from previous research Faces were presented in four randomly ordered blocks: male attractiveness, male trustworthiness, female attractiveness, and female trustworthiness. In each block, 20 face pairs were presented: 10 self—other pairs and 10 control—other pairs.

    Participants viewed pairs on a computer screen and indicated which face they found more physically attractive or more trustworthy by clicking on the face. The order of presentation of face pairs was randomized for each block, and the side of presentation of faces was randomized for each trial. Self-resemblance bias was calculated for male attractiveness, male trustworthiness, female attractiveness, and female trustworthiness as each participant's score for self—other pairs minus the control's score for those same faces i.

    Previous research has established that perceptions of facial trustworthiness are both fundamental to social perception of faces 39 and correlated with actual prosocial behavior ref. Measures used in prior work 7 , 9 , 10 explicitly assessed attitudes to incest, albeit by using measures that assessed both attitudes to incest in general i. Prior work also only explicitly assessed prosocial attitudes to specific, familiar siblings 9.

    By contrast, our study uses implicit measures to assess the effect of cues of kinship on sexual and prosocial attitudes. This distinction is important, given that cultural values about incest can mask some effects of cosocialization, even on third-party incest-avoidance measures 7.